Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation of School Oral Health Programs Amongst Schools with Different Education Boards: A Comparative Study

Main Article Content

Disha Makwani
Aakanxa Thakkar
Rohan Bhatt
Megha Patel
Foram Patel
Chhaya Patel


BACKGROUND –The school board actively encourages a coordinated strategy that differs between various educational boards to improve academic and health results among students, their parents and school staff thereby influencing the larger community.
AIM - To assess the barriers and facilitators for implementing oral health programmes among school children of different educational boards.
METHOD - A questionnaire with 13 closed-ended questions on barriers and facilitators for school-based oral health programs was validated and distributed to school teachers in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India, Total 94 responses were collected and converted into numerical data to calculate counts and percentages. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0 software.
CONCLUSION – Good oral health is key to general wellbeing and schools being the most influencing in foundation years of children, school based oral health program should be implemented on regular basis and provisions should be made to accommodate it in regular curriculum

RESULTS - The demographic distribution showed the highest participants from the GSEB board (43.6%) and the least responses from the CBSE board (21.3%). All participants were aware of school-based oral health programmes; however, only 70% of the CBSE schools had implemented school based oral health programmes, compared to 100% of ICSE and GSEB schools. In the GSEB board, the main barrier to implement school based oral health programmes in the curriculum was lack of material to teach oral health problems (42.9%), whereas in the CBSE board, insufficient time available in weekly schedules was the main limiting factor (63.6%). (P<0.005)

Article Details

How to Cite
Disha Makwani, Aakanxa Thakkar, Rohan Bhatt, Megha Patel, Foram Patel, & Chhaya Patel. (2023). Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation of School Oral Health Programs Amongst Schools with Different Education Boards: A Comparative Study. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(2), 449–458. Retrieved from


Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, Estupinan-Day S, Ndiaye C. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. World Health Organization; 2005. pp. 661–669.

Kaur P, Singh S, Mathur A, Makkar DK, Aggarwal VP, Batra M, et al. Impact of Dental Disorders and its Influence on Self Esteem Levels among Adolescents. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2017; 11: ZC05.

Jain YK, Joshi NK, Bhardwaj P, Suthar P. Health-promoting school in India: Approaches and challenges. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:3114-9.

World Health Organisation. WHO Information Series on School Health—Oral Health Promotion: An Essential Element of a Health-Promoting School. Geneva; 2003.

Gargano L, Mason MK, Northridge ME. Advancing Oral Health Equity Through School-Based Oral Health Programs: An Ecological Model and Review. Front Public Heal. 2019; 7: 359.

Stetler CB, Legro MW, Wallace CM, Bowman C, Guihan M, Hagedorn H, Kimmel B, Sharp ND, Smith JL. The role of formative evaluation in implementation research and the QUERI experience. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(2):S1–8

Ramroop V, Wright D, Naidu R. Dental health knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers toward developing dental health education. West Indian Med J. 2011;60:576-80.

Ronto R, Rathi N, Worsley A, Sanders T, Lonsdale C, Wolfenden L. Enablers and barriers to implementation of and compliance with school-based healthy food and beverage policies: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. Public Health Nutr. 2020;23(15):2840–55.

Roger J. Melbourne: Government of Victora. Evidence based oral health promotion. 2011.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parent Engagement: Strategies for Involving Parents in School Health. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.

Gambhir RS, Sohi RK, Nanda T, Sawhney GS, Setia S. Impact of school based oral health education programmes in India: A systematic review. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:3107-10.

Khoshnevisan MH, Pakkhesal M, Jadidfard M-P, Nejad G. School-based oral health promotion: a thorough review. 2017; 35: 143–149.

Murray, N.G., Low, B.J., Hollis, C., Ross, A.W., & Davis, S.M. (2007). Coordinated school health programs and academic achievement: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of School Health, 77, 589 600.

de Castilho AR, Mialhe FL, Barbosa TS, Puppin-Rontani RM. Influence of family environment on children’s oral health: a systematic review. J Pediatr. 2013;89:116−23.

Nyandindi U, Palin-Palokas T, Milén A, Robison V, Kombe N, Mwakasagule S. Participation, willingness and abilities of school teachers in oral health education in Tanzania. Community Dent Health. 1994;11:101-4.

Kranz AM, Rozier RG, Zeldin LP, Preisser JS. Oral health activities of early head start teachers directed toward children and parents. J Public Health Dent. 2011;71:161-9.

DeBiase CB. Dental health education. Theory and practice. London: Lea & Febiger, 1991.

Mialhe, Fábio. (2014). Teachers' views about barriers in implement oral health education for school children: a qualitative study. Brazilian Dental Science. 17. 65.

Mwangosi IE, Mwakatobe KM, Astrom AN. Sources of oral health information and teaching materials for primary schoolteachers in Rungwe District, Tanzania. Int Dent J. 2002;52:469-74.

Barnekow Rasmussen, Vivian, Buijs, Goof, Clift, Stephen, Bruun Jensen, Bjarne, Paulus, Peter. et al. (‎2006) ‎Health-promoting schools: a resource for developing indicators.EUR/06/5061578214 p.

Markovic, D.; Soldatovic, I.; Vukovic, R.; Peric, T.; Campus, G.G.; Vukovic, A. How Much Country Economy Influences ECC Profile in Serbian Children—A Macro-Level Factor Analysis. Front. Public Health 2019, 7.

Alsumait, A. Evaluation of a Long Standing School-based Oral Health Program: A Sequential-explanatory Mixed-Method Approach. Ph.D Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2016.

Tiwari T., Cofano L., Wood C., Frantsve-Hawley J. Challenges in Implementing School-Based Oral Health Programs: Short- and Long-Term Impact of COVID-19. Boston, MA, and Reno, NV: CareQuest Institute for Oral Health and the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors; May 2021. DOI: 10.35565/CQI.2021.2031