Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Body Mass Index-ACorrelation Study in Type 2 Diabetic Postmenopausal Women

Main Article Content

Priya Alva
Suchetha Kumari


Background:  The relationship of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid in diabetic postmenopausal women remains unclear and the association of theses fatty acids with obesity is debated. The pattern of PUFA among diabetic and non-diabetic women helped to clarify the correlation. The study aimed to determine the pattern of Poly unsaturated fatty acids among the diabetic case and control women and to correlate the PUFA with body mass index (BMI).

Materials and Method

Plasma PUFA was measured by gas chromatography among 120 type 2 diabetes mellitus post-menopausal women and 120 non diabetic postmenopausal women. Fasting blood samples were collected among the postmenopausal women.

Results and Discussion

Noticeable differences between the plasma phospholipid compositions among the groups were observed. Lower percentage of n-3 fatty acid was observed in diabetic postmenopausal women when compared with controls. Spearman's correlation showed an inverse relationship of EPA and DPA showed with BMI among the case group which was statistically significant (p<0.012; p<0.025).

Interpretation and conclusion

Lower EPA and DHA levels promotes obesity and metabolic abnormalities related to obesity.

Article Details

How to Cite
Priya Alva, & Suchetha Kumari. (2022). Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Body Mass Index-ACorrelation Study in Type 2 Diabetic Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 10(3), 07–14. Retrieved from


Sowers M, Derby C, Jannausch ML, Torrens JI, Pasternak R. Insulin resistance, hemostatic factors, and hormone interactions in pre-and perimenopausal women: SWAN. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2003;1;88(10):4904-10.

Lee CC, Kasa-Vubu JZ, Supiano MA. Androgenicity and obesity are independently associated with insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Metabolism. 2004;1;53(4):507-12.

Kanaya AM, Herrington D, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Grady D, Bittner V, Cauley JA, Glycemic effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of internal medicine. 2003; 7;138(1):1-9.

De Caterina R, Cybulsky MI, Clinton SK, Gimbrone Jr MA, Libby P. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cells. Arteriosclerosis and thrombosis: a journal of vascular biology. 1994;14(11):1829-36.

Talukdar S, Bae EJ, Imamura T, Morinaga H, Fan W, Li P et al. GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. Cell. 2010;142(5):687-98.

Buckley JD, Howe PR. Anti‐obesity effects of long‐chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Obesity reviews. 2009;10(6):648-59.

Martínez-Fernández L, Laiglesia LM, Huerta AE, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue function in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators. 2015; 1;121:24-41.

Farsi PF, Djazayery A, Eshraghian MR, Koohdani F, Saboor-Yaraghi AA, Derakhshanian H et al. Effects of supplementation with omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) in type 2 diabetic patients. ArquivosBrasileiros de Endocrinologia&Metabologia. 2014;58(4):335-40.

Muramatsu T, Yatsuya H, Toyoshima H, Sasaki S, Li Y, Otsuka R, Higher dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid is associated with lower insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese. Preventive medicine. 2010;1;50(5-6):272-6.

Lewis-Barned NJ, Sutherland WH, Walker RJ, De Jong SA, Walker HL,et al. Plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acid composition, insulin sensitivity, the menopause and hormone replacement therapy. Journal of endocrinology. 2000;1;165(3):649-55.

Maynar M, Mahedero G, Maynar I, Maynar JI, Tuya IR, Caballero MJ. Menopause-induced changes in lipid fractions and total fatty acids in plasma. Endocrine research. 2001;1;27(3):357-65.

Metcalfe LD, Schmitz AA, PelkaJR.Preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatography. Anal Chem 1966; 38(3): 514-15

Elmore A, Harris WS, Mu L, Brady WE, Hovey KM, Mares JA, Espeland MA, Haan MN, Millen AE. Red blood cell fatty acids and age-related macular degeneration in postmenopausal women. European journal of nutrition. 2022 Jan 6:1-0.

Field AE, Willett WC, Lissner L, Colditz GA. Dietary fat and weight gain among women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Obesity. 2007;15(4):967-76.

Rubin D, Laposata M. Regulation of agonist-induced prostaglandin E1 versus prostaglandin E2 production. A mass analysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1991;15;266(35):23618-23.

Amri EZ, Ailhaud G, Grimaldi PA. Fatty acids as signal transducing molecules: involvement in the differentiation of preadipose to adipose cells. Journal of Lipid Research. 1994;1;35(5):930-7.

Hennig B, Watkins BA. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid: effect on permeability properties of cultured endothelial cell monolayers. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1989;1;49(2):301-5.

Wu JH, Marklund M, Imamura F, Tintle N, Korat AV, De Goede J. Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of individual-level data for 39 740 adults from 20 prospective cohort studies. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology. 2017;1;5(12):965-74.

Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Progress in lipid research. 2009;1;48(1):44-51.

Vessby B. Dietary fat and insulin action in humans. British journal of nutrition. 2000;83(S1):S91-6.

Belury MA, Cole RM, Bailey BE, Ke JY, Andridge RR, Kiecolt‐Glaser JK. Erythrocyte linoleic acid, but not oleic acid, is associated with improvements in body composition in men and women. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2016;60(5):1206-12.

Bjermo H, Iggman D, Kullberg J, Dahlman I, Johansson L, Persson L, . Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2012 May 1;95(5):1003-12.

Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity - A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

Fritsche KL. The science of fatty acids and inflammation. Advances in Nutrition. 2015 May;6(3):293S-301S.

Perreault M, Roke K, Badawi A, Nielsen DE, Abdelmagid SA, El-Sohemy A, Plasma levels of 14: 0, 16: 0, 16: 1n-7, and 20: 3n-6 are positively associated, but 18: 0 and 18: 2n-6 are inversely associated with markers of inflammation in young healthy adults. Lipids. 2014 Mar 1;49(3):255-63.

Asp ML, Collene AL, Norris LE, Cole RM, Stout MB, Tang SY, Hsu JC, Belury MA. Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Clinical nutrition. 2011 Aug 1;30(4):443-9.

Bhaswant M, Poudyal H, Brown L. Mechanisms of enhanced insulin secretion and sensitivity with n-3 unsaturated fatty acids. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2015 Jun 1;26(6):571-84.

Flachs P, Horakova O, Brauner P, Rossmeisl M, Pecina P, Franssen-van Hal N Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce β-oxidation in white fat. Diabetologia. 2005 Nov 1;48(11):2365-75.

Buckley JD, Howe PR. Anti‐obesity effects of long‐chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Obesity reviews. 2009 Nov;10(6):648-59.

Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of diet and essential fatty acids. World review of nutrition and dietetics. 2001;88:18-27.

Kang JX. The importance of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cell function. Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio: The scientific evidence. 2003;92:23-36.

Simopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental biology and medicine. 2008 Jun;233(6):674-88.

Birch EE, Hoffman DR, Castañeda YS, Fawcett SL, Birch DG, Uauy RD. A randomized controlled trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula in term infants after weaning at 6 wk of age. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2002 Mar 1;75(3):570-80.

Gaillard D, Negrel R, Lagarde M, Ailhaud G. Requirement and role of arachidonic acid in the differentiation of pre-adipose cells. Biochemical Journal. 1989 Jan 15;257(2):389-97.

Corey EJ, Shih C, Cashman JR. Docosahexaenoic acid is a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin but not leukotriene biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1983 Jun 1;80(12):3581-4.

Massaro M, Habib A, Lubrano L, Del Turco S, Lazzerini G, Bourcier T, The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate attenuates endothelial cyclooxygenase-2 induction through both NADP (H) oxidase and PKCε inhibition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2006 Oct 10;103(41):15184-9.

Ringbom T, Huss U, Stenholm Å, Flock S, Skattebøl L, Perera P, Cox-2 inhibitory effects of naturally occurring and modified fatty acids. Journal of natural products. 2001 Jun 22;64(6):745-9.

Mirnikjoo B, Brown SE, Kim HF, Marangell LB, Sweatt JD, Weeber EJ. Protein kinase inhibition by ω-3 fatty acids. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2001 Apr 6;276(14):10888-96.

Ukropec J, Reseland JE, Gasperikova D, Demcakova E, Madsen L, Berge RK, The hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary n− 3 FA is associated with increased β‐oxidation and reduced leptin expression. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1023-9