Changes in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life after Orthognathic Surgery and an Accompanying Pre-Post Orthodontic Treatment: A Multidisciplinary Study

Main Article Content

Jnananjan Chattopadhyay
Vivek Pawar
Madhura Pawar
Manpreet Kaur
Shashank Gaikwad
Vaibhav Khare


The purpose of this study is to evaluate how patients' general and oral HRQoL change after undergoing orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformity and whether or not these changes differ by the kind of deformity.

Materials and methods

There were 100 people with dentofacial anomalies included in this prospective longitudinal study. The research was carried out at many centers. Before and three and six months after undergoing orthognathic surgery, patients filled out the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and Short-Form Health Survey version2 (SF-36v2). Dentofacial deformity grades were determined using a paired t-test to assess shifts and an unpaired t-test to differentiate between grades II and III. We were able to examine the rate of transformation by estimating the standard error of the standardized response (SRM).


Half a year following medical operation, the OQLQ and OHIP-14 revealed really large improvements compared to the pre-careful evaluation; nevertheless, the SF-36v2 showed measurable essential improvements only in the actual portion outline. Most of the OHIP-14 dimensions were unaffected by the SRM, however the OQLQ oral capacity (-1.15) and dentofacial facial feel (-0.71) dimensions were significantly affected.


Patients with Class II and Class III dentofacial abnormalities who had orthognathic surgery reported significant improvements in their oral HRQoL and overall health. As compared to patients in Class II, those in Class III made much more improvement.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chattopadhyay, J. ., Pawar, V. ., Pawar, M. ., Kaur, M. ., Gaikwad, S. ., & Khare, V. . (2023). Changes in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life after Orthognathic Surgery and an Accompanying Pre-Post Orthodontic Treatment: A Multidisciplinary Study. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(1), 811–824. Retrieved from


Arnett GW, Jelic JS, Kim J, et al. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis: Diagnosis and treatment planning of dentofacial deformity. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1999;116:239–253. doi: 10.1016/S0889-5406(99)70234-9.

Rizzatto SMD, Macedo de Menezes L, da Cunha Filho JJ, Allgayer S. Conventional surgical-orthodontic approach with double-jaw surgery for a patient with a skeletal Class III malocclusion: Stability of results 10 years post treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2018;154:128–139.

doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.12.034.

Seifi M, Matini N-S, Motabar A-R, Motabar M. Dentoskeletal stability in conventional orthognathic surgery, presurgical orthodontic treatment and surgery-first approach in class-III patients. World J Plast Surg. 2018;7:283–293. doi: 10.29252/wjps.7.3.283.

Luther F, Morris DO, Karnezi K. Orthodontic treatment following orthognathic surgery: how long does it take and why? A retrospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1969–1976. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2007.05.026.

Dehghani M, Fazeli F, Sattarzadeh AP. Efficiency and duration of orthodontic/orthognathic surgery treatment. J Craniofac Surg. 2017;28:1997–2000. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004165.

Dowling PA, Espeland L, Krogstad O, et al. Duration of orthodontic treatment involving orthognathic surgery. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1999;14:146–152.

Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Patrick DL. Measuring health-related quality of life. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:622–629. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-118-8-199304150-00009.

Morris J, Perez D, McNoe B. The use of quality of life data in clinical practice. Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehab. 1998;7:85–91. doi: 10.1023/a:1008893007068.

Middel B, van Sonderen E. Statistical significant change versus relevant or important change in (quasi) experimental design: some conceptual and methodological problems in estimating magnitude of intervention-related change in health services research. Int J Integr Care. 2002;2:e15. doi: 10.5334/ijic.65.

Cunningham SJ, Garratt AM, Hunt NP. Development of a condition-specific quality of life measure for patients with dentofacial deformity: I. Reliability of the instrument. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2000;28:195–201. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2000.280305.x.

Cunningham SJ, Garratt AM, Hunt NP. Development of a condition-specific quality of life measure for patients with dentofacial deformity: II. Validity and responsiveness testing. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2002;30:81–90. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0528.2002.300201.x.

Duarte V, Zaror C, Villanueva J, et al. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the orthognathic qality of life questionnaire for patients with dentofacial deformities. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg. 2020;48:1112–1118. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2020.10.004.

Eslamipour F, Najimi A, Tadayonfard A, Azamian Z. Impact of Orthognathic Surgery on Quality of Life in Patients with Dentofacial Deformities. Int J Dent. 2017;2017:1–6. doi: 10.1155/2017/4103905.

Kavin T, Jagadesan AG, Venkataraman S. Changes in quality of life and impact on patients′ perception of esthetics after orthognathic surgery. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012;4:290. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.100276.

Khadka A, Liu Y, Li J, et al. Changes in quality of life after orthognathic surgery: a comparison based on the involvement of the occlusion. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112:719–725. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.01.002.

Choi WS, Lee S, McGrath C, Samman N. Change in quality of life after combined orthodontic-surgical treatment of dentofacial deformities. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:46–51. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.08.019.

Chaurasia N, Upadhyaya C, Srivastava S, Dulal S. Assessment of changes in quality of life in patients with Dentofacial deformities after orthognathic surgery—A study in Nepalese population. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol. 2018;30:111–114. doi: 10.1016/j.ajoms.2017.10.005.

Cunningham SJ, Sculpher M, Sassi F, Manca A. A cost–utility analysis of patients undergoing orthognathic treatment for the management of dentofacial disharmony. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41:32–35. doi: 10.1016/S0266-4356(02)00285-1.

Sun H, Shang H, He L, et al. Assessing the Quality of Life in Patients With Dentofacial Deformities Before and After Orthognathic Surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;76:2192–2201. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2018.03.026.

Baherimoghaddam T, Tabrizi R, Naseri N, et al. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic–surgical treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;45:476–485. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2015.10.019.

Göelzer JG, Becker OE, Haas Junior OL, et al. Assessing change in quality of life using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) in patients with different dentofacial deformities undergoing orthognathic surgery: a before and after comparison. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;43:1352–1359. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2014.06.015.

Gerzanic L, Jagsch R, Watzke IM. Psychologic implications of orthognathic surgery in patients with skeletal Class II or Class ill malocclusion. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 2002;17:75–81.

Miguel JAM, Palomares NB, Feu D. Life-quality of orthognathic surgery patients: The search for an integral diagnosis. Dent Press J Orthod. 2014;19:123–137. doi: 10.1590/2176-9451.19.1.123-137.sar.

Angle E. Classification of malocclusion. Dent Cosm. 1899;41:248–264.

Joshi, Skeletal Malocclusion: A Developmental Disorder With a Life-Long Morbidity. J Clin Med Res. 2014 doi: 10.14740/jocmr1905w.

Rédua RB. Different approaches to the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion during growth: Bionator versus extraoral appliance. Dent Press J Orthod. 2020;25:69–85. doi: 10.1590/2177-6709.25.2.069-085.bbo.

Fakharian M, Bardideh E, Abtahi M. Skeletal Class III malocclusion treatment using mandibular and maxillary skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics: a case report. Dent Press J Orthod. 2019;24:52–59. doi: 10.1590/2177-6709.24.5.052-059.oar.

Montero-Martín J, Bravo-Pérez M, Albaladejo-Martínez A, et al. Validation the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14sp) for adults in Spain. Med Oral Patol Oral Cirugia Bucal. 2009;14:E44–50.

Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992;30:473–483. doi: 10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002.

Al-Asfour A, Waheedi M, Koshy S. Survey of patient experiences of orthognathic surgery: health-related quality of life and satisfaction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;47:726–731. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.12.010.

Murphy C, Kearns G, Sleeman D, et al. The clinical relevance of orthognathic surgery on quality of life. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:926–930. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2011.04.001.

Fayers PM, Machin D. Quality of life: assessment, analysis, and interpretation. Chichester: Wiley; 2000.

León S, Bravo-Cavicchioli D, Correa-Beltrán G, Giacaman RA. Validation of the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14Sp) in elderly Chileans. BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:95. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-95.

Alonso J, Regidor E, Barrio G, et al. Population reference values of the Spanish version of the Health Questionnaire SF-36. Med Clin (Barc) 1998;111:410–416. doi: 10.1016/S0025-7753(03)73775-0.

Farivar SS, Cunningham WE, Hays RD. Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 Health Survey, V.I. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:54. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-54.

Juniper E. Determining a minimal important change in a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47:81–87. doi: 10.1016/0895-4356(94)90036-1.

Hevey D, McGee HM. The effect size statistic: useful in health outcomes research ? J Health Psychol. 1998;3:163–170. doi: 10.1177/135910539800300201.

Rustemeyer J, Gregersen J. Quality of Life in orthognathic surgery patients: Post-surgical improvements in aesthetics and self-confidence. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg. 2012;40:400–404. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2011.07.009.

Lee S, McGrath C, Samman N. Impact of Orthognathic Surgery on Quality of Life. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1194–1199. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2008.01.006.

Nicodemo D, Pereira MD, Ferreira LM. Effect of orthognathic surgery for class III correction on quality of life as measured by SF-36. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:131–134. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2007.07.024.

Takatsuji H, Kobayashi T, Kojima T, et al. Effects of orthognathic surgery on psychological status of patients with jaw deformities. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;44:1125–1130. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2015.02.003.

Alanko O, Tuomisto MT, Peltomäki T, et al. A longitudinal study of changes in psychosocial well-being during orthognathic treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;46:1380–1386. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.05.004.

Hugo B, Becker S, Witt E. Assessment of the combined orthodontic- surgical treatment from the patients’ point of view: a longitudinal study. J Orofac Orthop. 1996;57:88–101. doi: 10.1007/BF02190482.

Nurminen L. Motivation for and satisfaction with orthodontic-surgical treatment: a retrospective study of 28 patients. Eur J Orthod. 1999;21:79–87. doi: 10.1093/ejo/21.1.79.