Histo Morphological Evaluation of Esophageal Lesions
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Background: Esophagus is a tubular structure of the gastrointestinal tract with primary pathological lesions including neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. It can secondarily be involved by mediastinal lesions, hence the need to detect and differentiate lesions at an early stage.
This study has been incorporated to emphasize the prevalence of different esophageal lesions with the site-wise distribution along with the comparison of their incidences to age and sex.
Methodology: Our study was done at the department of Pathology, father muller medical college, in Mangalore from January 2020 to January 2021. All the cases were assessed concerning age, chief complaints, site of lesion, and histomorphology. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections which were microscopically analyzed and categorized into various categories.
Results: The study included a total of 61 cases with various ages ranging from 31 to 80 years and a mean age presentation of 52.5 years. The most common primary chief complaint was dysphagia 70%. Neoplastic conditions constituted 78.7 % with the most common neoplastic condition being Squamous cell carcinoma at 67.7%
Conclusions: In the present study, we demonstrate that there can be different kinds of lesions in the esophagus all presenting with a similar complaint of dysphagia. Hence it is necessary to evaluate the microscopic findings of each case with due diligence. A spectrum of various Inflammatory and neoplastic conditions can be seen to occur in the esophagus.
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