Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Review

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M. Banwari
N. Kawathekar
G. Jain


A dangerous and prevalent chronic disease, type 2 diabetes is caused by a complicated interaction between genes, environment, and additional risk factors like obesity and sedentary behavior. Almost all populations in both industrialized and developing countries are affected by T2DM and its consequences, which have high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. T2DM and its health consequences are a significant global public health issue. A high prevalence rate has been noted in emerging nations, where the prevalence of T2DM has been rising dramatically. Although there is currently no known cure for the illness, treatment options include changing one's lifestyle, treating obesity, using oral hypoglycemic drugs, and using insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that lowers insulin resistance and is still the first-choice medication, particularly for obese patients. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and glucose-like peptide-1 agonist are other useful drugs. Throughout this review. We've made an effort to investigate the pathophysiology of T2DM, as well as various treatment options and their negative side effects.

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How to Cite
M. Banwari, N. Kawathekar, & G. Jain. (2023). Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Review. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(1), 1171–1193. Retrieved from


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