ECG and Echo Measures of AF – An Review

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Patange Aparna P.
Gharge Sushilkumar Sunil
Vivek E. Redkar


RHD accounts for between 35% - 45% of all cardiac incidents in India. It's the leading cause of atrial fibrillation in the first place. One of the most prevalent persistent arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a leading cause of death, hospitalizations, and overall healthcare costs. There are an estimated 2.3 million Americans with AF right now, and that number is projected to more than double, to 5.6 million, by the year 2050. Prevalence estimates range from around 1% in those aged 60–65 to between 8% and 10% in those aged 80 and more. Six percent to ten percent of patients over the age of 70 have it. The incidence is likewise greater among whites than among blacks, and among males than among women. It is also linked to a 2x increased risk of death from any cause and a 5x increased risk of stroke. It's characterized by a fast and/or irregular heartbeat. Individuals may have a wide range of AF symptoms. While some individuals with AF have symptoms, many others experience none at all. Anxiety and irregular fluttering are other frequent symptoms of intermittent AF, in addition to the most noticeable sign, palpitations. Exercise intolerance and dyspnea may occur in people with an unregulated ventricular response, and are often associated with congestive heart failure (CHF). The riskiest consequence of atrial fibrillation is thromboembolism.

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Aparna P., P. ., Sushilkumar Sunil, G. ., & Redkar, V. E. . (2023). ECG and Echo Measures of AF – An Review. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(1), 1447–1453. Retrieved from


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