A Household Survey To Assess Prevalence of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease and Standard of Living Patterns among Rural Peoples Residing in Rural Area of Kheda District, Gujarat
Main Article Content
Background of Study: Communicable and non-communicable diseases are two major categories of health conditions that affect individuals and populations globally. Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can spread from one person to another through various means such as direct or indirect contact, droplets, or contaminated food and water. Examples of communicable diseases include tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, influenza, and COVID-19.
On the other hand, non-communicable diseases are not caused by infectious agents but rather by factors such as genetic predisposition, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Examples of non-communicable diseases include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and respiratory diseases.
Understanding the prevalence of both communicable and non-communicable diseases is essential for effective health planning and policy-making. A household survey is a useful tool for assessing the prevalence of these diseases in a population. Such surveys typically involve collecting information on the health status of individuals in a household, as well as demographic and socioeconomic information.
The data collected from a household survey can be used to estimate the prevalence of various diseases in a population, identify risk factors associated with the diseases, and evaluate the effectiveness of health interventions. This information can then be used to inform the development of health policies and programs aimed at reducing the burden of disease and improving health outcomes.
Overall, a household survey to assess the prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases is an important research tool that can help to inform public health strategies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of disease in a population.
Objectives: 1. To conduct household survey. 2. To estimate the prevalence rate of Communicable and Non-communicable diseases. 3. To assess the standard of living patterns among rural population.
Methodology: The Descriptive survey approach cross sectional study research design carried out for the study , (Community-based cross sectional survey approach) Sampling method was Non Probability sampling technique Convenience sampling method was used to drawn the samples for the study. Study population were all the peoples who are residing at Nani Khadol Village Gujarat State. Total sample size was 1044 peoples.
Results: Regarding morbidity rate of the village peoples, 25(2.4%) of the people in community are suffering from diabetes mellitus, 40(3.8%) of the people are suffering from hypertension, 5(0.5%) of the people are suffering from heart disease, 5 (0.5%) of people are suffering from asthma, 7 (0.7%) of people are suffering from tuberculosis, 10 (1.0%) of people are suffering with diarrhea, 21(2.0%) of children’s are suffering from malnutrition, 2 (0.2%) are suffering from hemorrhoids, 4(0.4%) are suffering with cancer, 6 (0.6%) are suffering with fever and 42 (4.0%) are suffering from vision problem, 32 (3.1%) peoples suffering with underweight, 45 (4.3%) peoples suffering with Obesity and 12 (1.1%) others health problems.
Conclusion: The prevalence of daily smoked tobacco was 23.0% for males and 3.2% among females. Daily smokeless tobacco use was 34.5% and 3.8% for males and females respectively. The study revealed comparatively higher use of tobacco and alcohol among males while overweight and hypertension was somewhat higher among females. The findings of study emphasize the need of community-based IEC (Information Education Communication) intervention along with the pro-vision of comprehensive package health services so as to reduce the risk of NCDs. The population at risk of NCDs must be involved at all level of prevention through full com-munity participation. The standard of living of the peoples was good, 89% having Pucca house and 99% having own house. The surrounding areas of the village was average and cleaned.
World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases. Accessed on March 21, 2023.
World Health Organization. WHO STEPS surveillance manual: the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/index.htm. Accessed on March 21, 2023.
Demographic and Health Surveys. Available at: https://dhsprogram.com/. Accessed on March 21, 2023.
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) Results. Available at: http://www.healthdata.org/gbd. Accessed on March 21, 2023.
Szklo M, Nieto FJ. Epidemiology: Beyond the Basics. 3rd edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2013.
Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL. Modern Epidemiology. 3rd edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
Salomon JA, Vos T, Hogan DR, et al. Common values in assessing health outcomes from disease and injury: disability weights measurement study for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380:2129-43.
Healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. http://www.u n.org/ sustainable development/ health (accessed 8 Sep 2016).
Risnes KR, Vatten LJ, Baker JL, et al. Birth weight and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol2011;40:647–61.
Whincup PH, Kaye SJ, Owen CG, et al. Birth weight and risk of type diabetes: a systematic review. JAMA 2008;300:2886–97.
The World Bank. World development indicators. http:// databank. worldbank. org/ data/ reports. aspx? source= 2& country= BGD (accessed 8 Sep 2016).
Khan JAM, Trujillo AJ, Ahmed S, et al. Distribution of chronic disease mortality and deterioration in household socioeconomic status in rural Bangladesh: an analysis over a 24-year period. Int J Epidemiol 2015;44:1917–26.
WHO Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Program. STEP wise approach to surveillance (STEPS). http://www. who. int/ chp/ steps/ en/ (accessed 8 Sep 2016).