The Cervical Sympathetic Chain in Fetuses at Different Gestational Age.
Main Article Content
Introduction: The cervical part of sympathetic chain (CSC) is a part of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. It continues below with the thoracic part of sympathetic chain. It has three ganglia-superior, middle and Inferior.
Material &method: The material for the present study included 50 spontaneously aborted fetuses. The cervical part of sympathetic chain was exposed bilaterally and location, length, number and position of ganglia was noted.
Observations: The specimens were divided into four groups (A=11-15weeks,B=15+_20weeks,C=20+_25weeks,Group D=25 weeks onwards). Morphology:The number of cervical ganglia varied from 1-3; Three ganglia was noticed in 54% cases, two ganglia in 42 % cases. In only 4% cases only one ganglia was seen.The presence of cervico-thoracic ganglion was noted in 66% fetal specimens. The length was measured and compared with other authors.
Cunningham DJ. Notes on the Great Splanchnic Ganglion. J Anat Physiol. 1875 ;9(2):303-5.
GAG Decker , DJ du Plessis .Lee Mcgreogers Synopsis of the autonomic nervous system.Ind. Ed;1995:212-3.
Grey's H. Anatomy of human body. Philadelphia: Lea & Feibger.1918;560.
Grant JCB. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co.,10th ed. ;1943:542.
Elias M. Cervical sympathetic and stellate ganglion blocks. Pain Physician. 2000; 3(3):294-304.
Gest TR, Hildebrandt S. The pattern of the thoracic splanchnic nerves as they pass through the diaphragm. Clin Anat. 2009 Oct;22(7):809-14.
Kuntz A .The development of sympathetic nervous system in man. J .Comp. Neurol., 1920; 32: 173-229.
Wrete M. The anatomy of the sympathetic trunks in man. J Anat. 1959;93:448-59.
SobocinskiM .Uklad nerwowy zwierzat domowych. PWN, Warszawa.1985.
Kattar N, Flowers T. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Sympathetic Chain. [Updated 2022 Sep 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023.
Manuel N, Lekha KS, Das L, Seena N. Surgical anatomy of cervical sympathetic trunk: a cadaveric study. Int J Res Med Sci 2022;10:400-7.
Civelek E, Karasu A, Cansever T, Hepgul K, Kiris T, Sabanci A, Canbolat A. Surgical anatomy of the cervical sympathetic trunk during anterolateral approach to cervical spine. Eur Spine J. 2008 Aug;17(8):991-5.
Tubbs RS, Salter EG, Oakes WJ. Anatomic landmarks for nerves of the neck: a vade mecum for neurosurgeons.Neurosurgery.2005;56(2):256-60.
De Gama, B Z ,Lazarus, L; Partab P & Satyapal, KS. The sympathetic and parasympathetic contribution to the cardiac plexus: a fetal study. Int J.Morphol.2012;30(4):1569-76.