A Relationship between Vitamin D Deficiency and Early-Onset Sepsis in Term Neonates
Main Article Content
Introduction: Vitamin D, which has also been linked to viral diseases, is essential for the immune system. In addition to its well-known role in bone health, Vit D has been shown to have an impact on the immune system. This researches motive was to investigate the relationship between Vit D insufficiency and "Early-Onset Sepsis (EOS)" among term neonates.
Methods: A case-control study was designed at tertiary facility. 90 term neonates with EOS and 90 controls who were matched for gestational age, birth weight, and sex participated in a case-control research. All subjects had their serum 25(OH)D levels evaluated.
Results: The EOS individuals' mean 25(OH)D level was substantially lower than that of the control subjects when compared to them (p <0.001). A substantially larger proportion of neonates in the EOS participants had Vit D deficiency compared to the control subjects (p <0.001). In the multivariate analysis, Vit D deficiency was found to be independently associated with EOS (p=0.03).
Conclusion: According to this study, Vit D insufficiency raises the incidence of EOS in term newborns. Screening newborns on a routine basis for Vit D insufficiency may enable timely diagnosis and therapy of this modifiable risk factor. Additional research is required to verify these results and examine the potential advantages of Vit D supplementation in the prevention of EOS.
Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics. 2002;110(2 Pt 1):285-291.
Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Sánchez PJ, et al. Early onset neonatal sepsis: the burden of group B Streptococcal and E. coli disease continues. Pediatrics. 2011;127(5):817-826.
Mukhopadhyay S, Dukhovny D, Mao W, Eichenwald EC, Puopolo KM. 2011 Perinatal GBS Prevention Guideline and resource utilization. Pediatrics. 2014;133(2):196-203.
Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6(1):2-8.
Schlapbach LJ, Aebischer M, Adams M, et al. Impact of sepsis on neurodevelopmental outcome in a Swiss National Cohort of extremely premature infants. Pediatrics. 2011;128(2):e348-e357.
Weston EJ, Pondo T, Lewis MM, et al. The burden of invasive early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States, 2005-2008. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(11):937-941.
Karthikeyan G, Premkumar K. Neonatal sepsis: Staphylococcus aureus as the predominant pathogen. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2001 Aug;68(8):715-7.
Muller-Pebody B, Johnson AP, Heath PT, et al. Empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis: are the current guidelines adequate? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011;96(1):F4-F8.
Singh P, Chaudhari V. Association of Early-Onset Sepsis and Vitamin D Deficiency in Term Neonates. Indian Pediatr. 2020;57(3):232-234.
de Haan K, Groeneveld AB, de Geus HR, Egal M, Struijs A. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for infection, sepsis and mortality in the critically ill: systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical care. 2014 Dec;18(6):1-8.
Zhou J, Su L, Liu M, et al. Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pregnancy outcomes: a prospective observational study in southern China. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(8):925-930. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.99.
Yang H, Liang X, Li Y, et al. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of respiratory tract infections in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19(1):787.
Su G, Jia D. Vitamin D in Acute and Critically Sick Children with a Subgroup of Sepsis and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2021;73(7):1118-1125. doi:10.1080/01635581.2020.1784964.
Karras SN, Fakhoury H, Muscogiuri G, et al. Maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy and neonatal health: evidence to date and clinical implications. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2016;8(4):124-135. doi:10.1177/1759720X16656810.
Saggese G, Vierucci F, Boot AM, et al. Vitamin D in childhood and adolescence: an expert position statement. Eur J Pediatr. 2015;174(5):565-576.
Gerdes JS, Polin R. Early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;65:63-78.