Evaluation of Renal Growth and Function in Preterm Infants at Corrected Age of 12-18 Months a cross-sectional observational study

Main Article Content

Maggidi Ajay Reddy


Introduction: The preterm birth is a significant risk factor for the development and function of a baby's kidneys. However, very little research has been done on the growth and function of the kidneys in preterm infants between the ages of 12 and 18 months. Evaluation of renal development and function in preterm infants at 12-18 months of corrected age is the goal of this study.

Methods: The methodology for this observational cross-sectional study was carried out at Indian tertiary care facilities. Included were neonatal intensive care unit-admitted preterm infants under 37 weeks. The length and volume of the kidneys were assessed using ultrasound technology to determine renal growth. Evaluation of renal function was accomplished by measuring creatinine in the serum, blood urea nitrogen, and eGFR.

Results: The findings demonstrated that preterm neonates had significantly lower kidney volumes and mean values compared to term newborns (p-value <0.001). Protein levels in preterm babies' urine ranged from 37.4 to 27.4 mg/dL, while levels of creatinine in term babies' urine ranged from 0.48 to 0.09 mg/dL. The p-values for urinary protein excretion and serum creatinine levels were respectively 0.72 and 0.53. A person was considered to have hypertension if either their systolic or diastolic blood pressure was higher than the 95th percentile for their age, gender, and height. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension between preterm infants (8.2%) and term newborns (2.1%) (p-< 0.05).

Conclusion: This study helps evaluate renal growth and function in preterm infants between the ages of 12 and 18 months when they were corrected for age. The proper growth and function of the kidneys in preterm babies at this age can help guide clinical care and follow-up.

Article Details

How to Cite
Maggidi Ajay Reddy. (2023). Evaluation of Renal Growth and Function in Preterm Infants at Corrected Age of 12-18 Months a cross-sectional observational study. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(1), 2370–2374. Retrieved from https://www.jclmm.com/index.php/journal/article/view/693


World Health Organization. Preterm birth. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/preterm-birth. Accessed on April 29, 2023.

Blencowe H, Cousens S, Chou D, et al. Born too soon: the global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod Health. 2013;10(Suppl 1):S2. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-S1-S2

Marlow N, Wolke D, Bracewell MA, Samara M; EPICure Study Group. Neurologic and developmental disability at six years of age after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(1):9-19. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa041367

Andraweera PH, Condon B, Collett G, Gentilcore S, Lassi ZS. Cardiovascular risk factors in those born preterm–systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 2021 Aug;12(4):539-54.

Batton DG. The neonatal kidney. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar SU, eds. Avery's Diseases of the Newborn. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2018: 497-512.

Gubhaju L, Sutherland MR, Black MJ. Preterm birth and the kidney: implications for long-term renal health. Reprod Sci. 2011;18(4):322-333. doi:10.1177/1933719111401659

Mannan MA, Shahidulla M, Salam F, Alam MS, Hossain MA, Hossain M. Postnatal development of renal function in preterm and term neonates. Mymensingh Med J. 2012;21(1):103-108.

Bruel A, Rozé JC, Quere MP, et al. Renal outcome in children born preterm with neonatal acute renal failure: IRENEO-a prospective controlled study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016;31(12):2365-2373. doi:10.1007/s00467-016-3444-z

Becherucci F, Roperto RM, Materassi M, Romagnani P. Chronic kidney disease in children. Clin Kidney J. 2016;9(4):583-591. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfw057

Filler G, Lepage N. Should the Schwartz formula for estimation of GFR be replaced by cystatin C formula? Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18(9):981-985. doi: 10.1007/s00467-003-1267-2

Boer DP, de Rijke YB, Hop WC, Cransberg K, Dorresteijn EM. Reference values for serum creatinine in children younger than 1 year of age. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25(10):2107-2113. doi:10.1007/s00467-010-1533-y

Villar J, Giuliani F, Bhutta ZA, et al. Postnatal growth standards for preterm infants: the Preterm Postnatal Follow-up Study of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3(11):e681-e691. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00163-1

Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):604-612. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006

Schwartz GJ, Brion LP, Spitzer A. The use of plasma creatinine concentration for estimating glomerular filtration rate in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1987;34(3):571-590. doi: 10.1016/s0031-3955(16)36648-1

Flynn JT, Kaelber DC, Baker-Smith CM, et al. Clinical practice guideline for screening and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017;140(3):e20171904. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1904

Mora-Fernández C, Domínguez-Pimentel V, de Fuentes MM, Górriz JL, Martínez-Castelao A, Navarro-González JF. Diabetic kidney disease: from physiology to therapeutics. J Physiol. 2014;592(18):3997-4012. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.272328

Abitbol CL, Bauer CR, Montané B, Chandar J, Duara S, Zilleruelo G. Long-term follow-up of extremely low birth weight infants with neonatal renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18(9):887-893. doi:10.1007/s00467-003-1186-1

Hinchliffe SA, Lynch MR, Sargent PH, Howard CV, Van Velzen D. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the development of renal nephrons. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99(4):296-301. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1992.tb14576.x

Barker DJ, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, Harding JE, Owens JA, Robinson JS. Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet. 1993;341(8850):938-941. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)91224-a