Geographic Variation in low BMD Incidence Relying on the Predictive Indicator T-score

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Eiman Shahrour
Bassel AL-Halabi
Amir N Dabboul
Walid Al-Achkar
Abd Alrazak Hassan
Atieh Khamis
Haissam Yazigi


Background and aims: Many factors affect bone mineral density BMD, such as genetic, nutritional, environmental, physical activity and health status. The goal is to study the effect of urbanization on the BMD of the Syrian society and to know the prevalence rates of BMD cases  as a diffusion study. Methods: The study included 150 participants who visited the clinic of rheumatology at Tishreen University Hospital, Lattakia, Syria. All participants were women with pre-menopause or post-menopause. A questionnaire was filled  with various clinical and personal information, including place of residence. BMD was measured using DEXA. Descriptive statistaical frequently test was used to calculate the ratios of the distribution of BMD values among different geographical regions .Results:.According to geographical regions(outskirts, city, northen countryside, eastern countryside, western countryside, southern countryside) , the highest precentages of BMD statue for femur and lumbar BMD, ,respectively are(41.4%normal,41.4%osteopenia)(55.4%normal,46.4%osteopenia)(55.6%normal,55.6%osteopenia)(61.1%normal,50%osteoenia)(40%normal,40%osteoporossis)(42.9%osteope- nia,42.9%osteoporosis),respectively. ).  In the Syrian coast and Syria in general, the prevalence rates of the three BMD statues (normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis are 49.3%,32%,18,7%, respectively for femur BMD, 32.7%, 43.3%, 24%, respectively for Lumbar BMD. Discusion: It is the first study of its kind in Syria. In all geographic regions except for the southern countryside, the highest rates are for normal BMD in the femur region and  for  low BMD(osteopenia) in the lumbar region. Approximately equal proportions between the countryside and the city show  the  slight impact of urbanization on Syrian society.  As for the southern countryside, the highest percentages are for  low BMD(osteopenia)  in the femur region and low BMD(osteoporosis)  in the lumbar region . Conclusions: The southern countryside suffers from low BMD at the highest rate among the studied geographical areas. The negative impact of urbanization on BMD appears slightly. And there are no obvious effects of the economic war in Syria on BMD.

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Eiman Shahrour, Bassel AL-Halabi, Amir N Dabboul, Walid Al-Achkar, Abd Alrazak Hassan, Atieh Khamis, & Haissam Yazigi. (2023). Geographic Variation in low BMD Incidence Relying on the Predictive Indicator T-score. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(1), 2625–2630. Retrieved from


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