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Background: Play is a vital component of child development, promoting physical and mental well-being. This descriptive study aimed to assess the problem-solving ability of primary school students and its association with active and non-active play. Material & Methods: A total of 388 students were selected using purposive sampling, and data was collected using the standardized Child Physical Activity Questionnaire and a Likert scale questionnaire to evaluate problem-solving ability. Demographic data was also collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Majority of the participants were 13 years old (36.60%), male (51.29%), studying in 7th grade (36.60%), from nuclear families (65.72%), and residing in rural areas of Vadodara city (51.55%). Cricket was the most popular sports activity, and playground play was the most common leisure time activity. The majority engaged in arts and craft activities at school (79.38%). Problem-solving ability was found to be "hit-and-miss" for 210 participants, with a score between 36-55, indicating an understanding of the importance of structured problem-solving but inconsistent results. There was no significant association between type of play and socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: Unstructured play is essential for healthy development, and the study highlights the need for promoting various play opportunities from birth until adolescence.
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