A Study of Ocular Manifestations in Anaemic Patients
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Anaemia can appear with a wide range of ocular abnormalities. Every component of the eye is susceptible to anaemia. In 28% of individuals, anaemia results in anaemic retinopathy, particularly when thrombocytopenia (38%), is also present. The risk of retinopathy rises as anaemia severity rises, especially when haemoglobin (Hb) levels are below 6 gm/dl. A cross sectional observational study that was conducted in 100 patients, age group of 18 to 60 exclusion were taken for study during the time period of April 2021 to October 2022. Objectives of the study were the ocular manifestations in patients with anaemia, compare severity of anaemia with ocular manifestation in anaemic patients, study ocular manifestations in patients of anaemia with thrombocytopenia, compare the occurrence of retinal manifestations in patients with anaemia with thrombocytopenia vs anaemia. WHO grading based on haemoglobin levels was used to categorize patients. Each patient was subjected to detailed history taking, followed by external ocular examination, visual acuity for near and distance using Snellen’s chart, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement using Goldman’s applanation tonometry, fundoscopy using direct ophthalmoscope and indirect ophthalmoscope. Among those 100 patients 16% patients had mi1d anaemia, 47% patients had moderate anaemia, 37% patients had severe anaemia. In this study out of 100 patients 65(65%) were female and 35(35%) were male and maximum patients 35% were in between age 21-30 years. 25% had diminution of vision. severe anaemia about 54.05% had diminution of vision. retinal abnorma1ities are significantly higher in severe anaemic patients as compared to the mi1d and moderate anaemia. Early diagnosis of retinal manifestation will facilitate prompt treatment initiation, leading to prevention of avoidable diminution of vision, early clearance of retinal abnormalities and a successful outcome. Coexistence of anaemia and thrombocytopenia has a greater impact on the frequency and severity of retinal manifestation.
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