A Study of Respiratory Tract Infections in Diabetes Mellitus Patients Presenting to Tertiary Care Centre, Dhiraj Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat

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Bhavesh Patel
Mothiganesh G
Rushikesh R. Yadav
Ujwal Jain
Sonal Goyal


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of disorders typified by persistent hyperglycemia caused by an absolute or relative shortage of insulin, which interferes with carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. The degree of severity of hyperglycemia and the persistence of it is substantially linked with the severity of the microvascular, macrovascular, and neurological problems. These effects increase the chance of infection. Predisposition to infections brought on by changes in the host's defensive mechanisms and interaction with the respiratory epithelium's and cilia's regular functioning. Gastroparesis brought on by autonomic neuropathy, increased risk of aspiration due to reduced esophageal motility, pulmonary microangiopathy, impaired lung functions, and co-existing morbidity.

Aim: To determine respiratory tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: A prospective observational research design was used. Clinical assessments of the subjects were made using a case record design approach. In order to assess the incidence of respiratory infections in diabetic patients, all individuals with diabetes mellitus who had also experienced respiratory infections were collected and further analysed. The trial lasted for 1.5 years.

Result: With an average age of 52.70 years, the 50 patients in our research with DM and lung infections varied in age from 25 to 85. The majority (58%) of patients are in the 50 to 70 age range. We found a significant correlation between age, gender, and illness duration in those with DM associated with lung infections. Cough was the most prevalent symptom exhibited by the patient 50(100%), accompanied by mucoid expectoration 26 (52%), purulent 15 (30%) followed by mucopurulent expectoration 5(10%), blood tinged sputum 1(2%), and no expectoration 3 (6%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in 21patients, the most prevalent organism in our study pulmonary infections in diabetic patients, accounted 42% of all infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 8 (16%) and then by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7 (14%) and next by Aspergillus fumigatus S (10%), then followed streptococcus pneumonia 4 (8%) and finally staphylococcus aureus & enterobacteriaceae 2 (4%) and E. coli (2%).

Conclusion: According to the study, there is a strong link between diabetes mellitus and pulmonary infections. All individuals with diabetes mellitus were found to have TB as their most prevalent pulmonary infection. In our investigation, individuals with DM associated with pulmonary infections showed a strong association between illness duration, age and gender. The most frequent kind of expectoration in all of the patients that were included was cough with mucoid expectoration, which was followed by purulent and mucopurulent expectoration. The incidence of hemoptysis was particularly notable in diabetic individuals with pulmonary infections

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Bhavesh Patel, Mothiganesh G, Rushikesh R. Yadav, Ujwal Jain, & Sonal Goyal. (2023). A Study of Respiratory Tract Infections in Diabetes Mellitus Patients Presenting to Tertiary Care Centre, Dhiraj Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(1), 3221–3228. Retrieved from https://www.jclmm.com/index.php/journal/article/view/857


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