Dermatophytoses' Immunopathogenesis and Risk Factors for Persistent Infections

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Kiran Patil
Gauri Bhale
Mohan Kale


Dermatophytoses—skin, hair, and nail fungal infections—are a global health problem. Effective management and prevention of dermatophytoses requires understanding immunopathogenesis and risk factors for chronic infections. This review examines immunopathogenesis and risk factors of dermatophytoses. The host's immunological response and the invading dermatophytes interact to cause dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes colonize keratinized structures using virulence agents such proteases and adhesins. Dermatophyte-derived chemicals and host pattern recognition receptors influence immune response. The host's immune reaction resolves dermatophyte infections. Pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides help detect and contain illnesses. T and B cells in the adaptive immune response fight pathogens and provide immunological memory. Risk factors can cause persistent dermatophytoses. Host genetic predisposition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes mellitus), environmental variables (e.g., hot and humid regions), and poor hygiene might enhance infection susceptibility and persistence. Persistent infections can also caused by immunosuppression. Efficient management and prevention strategies encompass a multifaceted approach. However, topical and systemic antifungals are limited. Hygiene, high-risk antifungal prophylaxis, and public health are prevention techniques. Dermatophytoses vaccines and immunomodulatory treatments are being investigated. In conclusion, dermatophytoses must be managed and prevented by recognizing their immunopathogenesis and risk factors. This research can improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, reducing the global burden of dermatophytoses..

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Patil, K. ., Bhale, G. ., & Kale, M. . (2023). Dermatophytoses’ Immunopathogenesis and Risk Factors for Persistent Infections. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 11(2), 61–65. Retrieved from


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