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Objective: In terms of their clinical traits and physiological traits, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia are two haematological malignancies that are distinct from one another. The objectives of the current study were to identify and classify AL patients and to assess their clinicopathological characteristics using the WHO's 2016 categorization of ALs, revised 4th edition.
Materials and Methodology: 68 persons with an Acute Leukaemia diagnosis participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Through the use of peripheral blood smear analysis, bone marrow aspiration, flow cytometry, and cytogenetic and molecular testing, the diagnosis was made.
Results: Over the course of two years, 68 cases of Acute Leukaemia were discovered, of which 25 cases were Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia and 43 cases were Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. According to the WHO's 2016 subclassification of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia, there were 20 cases of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia with Recurrent Genetic Abnormality, 21 cases of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia, Not Otherwise Specified, and 2 cases of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia with Myelodysplasia Related Changes. Twenty PML-RARA positive cases of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia with recurrent genetic abnormality, seven (8;21) RUNX1-RUNX1T1 cases, two NPM1 gene mutant cases, and one biallelic CEBPA case were all examined. Nine out of twenty-one cases of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia with maturation fell into the Not Otherwise Specified grouping. B cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia was more common than T cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in the subcategory of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia. Natural Killer cell Leukaemia cases were more likely to exhibit B cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Not Otherwise Specified group than B cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia with Recurrent Genetic Abnormality.
Conclusion: Adopting the fourth edition of the WHO 2016 classification fosters uniformity in the reporting of cases of acute leukaemia, which makes it simpler to use targeted therapies and aids in prognosis forecasting. The WHO classification for acute leukaemia is still accurate, useful, and treatment-specific today.
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