Main Article Content
Rapid spread of SARS Covid 19 turned out to be a global emergency. Covid 19 RNA virus strain is from family Coronaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis of complete viral genome revealed that virus was most closely related to SARS like coronaviruses.Symptoms of viral infection include mild infection of upper repiratory tract, viral pneumonia, respiratory failure and death. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has demonstrated positive results indicating a potential role against SARS Covid 19 virus. Mechanism of action includes ;interference in endocytic pathway, blockade of sialic acid receptors, restriction of pH mediated spike (S) protein cleavage at the Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2) binding site and prevention of cytokine storm.Yet clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate its abilityand turning it into a needed drug. Existing literature hints the role of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) sulfate in Covid 19 for obtaining a therapeutic option for the pandemic.
Bhuva F, Patel LD et al., Xylometazoline nasal spray solution: novel composition used for treatment of nasal congestion. MOJ Drug Des Develop Ther. 2018
Tsai S-T, Lu M-K, San S and Tsai C-H The Neurologic Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Systemic Review. Front. Neurol (2020) Vol 11 Pg 498.
Kalkotwar et al., Review on Evaluation and Quality Control of Nasal Spray Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics; 2012, Vol 2(4),Pg 1-4
Sairaj Satarker , Tejas Ahuja, Madhuparna Banerjee , Vignesh Balaji E, Shagun Dogra , Tushar Agarwal , Madhavan Nampoothiri et al., Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19: Potential Mechanism of Action Against SARS-CoV-2 ; Current Pharmacology Reports (2020) Vol 6 Pg 203–211
Leila Mousavizadeh, Sorayya Ghasemi et al., Review Article on Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: Their roles in pathogenesis ; Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2021) 54,Pg 159-163
Houtmeyers, R. Gosselink, G. Gayan-Ramirez, M. Decramer et al., Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.,European Respiratory Journals Ltd 1999, Vol 14: Pg 452 – 467
Dongala T, Katari NK, Ettaboina SK, Krishnan A, Tambuwala MM and Dua K et al., In vitro Dissolution Profile at Different Biological pH Conditions of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Tablets Is Available for the Treatment of COVID-19, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences ; January 2021 Volume 7 Article 613393
Muhammad Adnan Shereen, Suliman Khan , Abeer Kazmi , Nadia Bashir , Rabeea Siddique et al., COVID-19 infection: Emergence, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses ; Journal of Advanced Research 24 (2020) 91–98
Xiao X, Wang C, Chang D, Wang Y, Dong X, Jiao T, Zhao Z, Ren L, Dela Cruz CS, Sharma L, Lei X and Wang J et al Identification of Potent and Safe Antiviral Therapeutic Candidates Against SARS-CoV-2. Front. Immunol, (2020), Volume 11, Article 586572.
Christoph Bitter, Katja Suter- Zimmermann, Christian Surber et al., Nasal Drug Delivery in Humans, Curr Probl Dermatol. Basel, Karger, 2011, vol 40, pp 20–35
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet (2020) 395 (10223):497–506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Ren L, Wang Y, Wu Z, Xiang Z, Guo L, Xu T, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin Med J (Engl) (2020) 133:1015–24.
Drosten C, Gunther S, Preiser W, Van Der Werf S, Brodt HR, Becker S, et al.Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med (2003) 348(20):1967–76. doi: 10.1056/ NEJMoa030747
Zaki A, Van Boheemen S, Bestebroer T, Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med (2012) 367(19):1814–20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1211721
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med (2020) 382 (8):727–33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
Ksiazek T, Erdman D, Goldsmith C, Zaki S, Peret T, Emery S, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med (2003) 348(20):1953–66. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa030781
Andreani J, Le Bideau M, Duflot I, Jardot P, Rolland C, Boxberger M, et al. In vitro testing of combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin on SARSCoV- 2 shows synergistic effect. Microb Pathog (2020) 145:104228. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104228
Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, Cui C, Huang B, Niu P, et al. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). Clin Infect Dis (2020) 71(15):732–9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa237
Singh A, Singh A, Shaikh A, Singh R, Misra A. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: A systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes Metab Syndr (2020) 14(3):241–6. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.011
Badyal DK, Mahajan R. Chloroquine: Can it be a Novel Drug for COVID-19. Int J Appl Basic Med Res (2020) 10(2):128–30. doi: 10.4103/ ijabmr.IJABMR_141_20
Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, Diaz G, Asperges E, Castagna A, et al. Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med (2020) 382(24):2327–36. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007016
Guastalegname M, Vallone A. Could chloroquine /hydroxychloroquine be harmful in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment Clin Infect Dis (2020) 71(15):888–9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa321
Gautret P, Lagier J, Parola P, Hoang V, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents (2020) 56(1):105949. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P,Mi D, Ren L, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nat Commun (2020) 11(1):1620. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-15562-9